Internet Security

Who Owns Your Data When You Are Dead?

Gavin Phillips 28-06-2017

When a 15-year-old German girl died, hit by a subway train, it was a tragedy.


Her distraught parents turned to her online accounts for answers: was this an awful accident or was it a premeditated action? What was going on in her online life, and how was it affecting her every day?

Those parents still do not know. The data and critically, the passwords, were the private property of the young girl. Not her parents.

The ownership of data at the moment of death is a modern question. Whose hands does it fall into? Who has rights, and who can stake a claim?

Whose Data Is It Anyway?

The German teenager has no say in the management of her data. But Facebook argues that allowing her parents access to the content of her private messages would violate the privacy of her contacts. Most importantly, a judge agrees.

Facebook is not the only social media or technology company that takes this stance.


In 2016, Apple hit the headlines after it refused to give a widow her husband’s account password for their shared iPad. Apple finally relented after Peggy Bush reached out to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation’s Go Public program. Apple reasoned that despite Peggy having the original device and serial number, and a certificate confirming her husband’s death, Apple policy was to protect the privacy of a user.

“I then wrote a letter to Tim Cook, the head of Apple, saying this is ridiculous. All I want to do is download a card game for my mother on the iPad. I don’t want to have to go to court to do that, and I finally got a call from customer relations who confirmed, yes, that is their policy.”

Succession law in relation to digital accounts is still relatively new ground. Today, companies have to consider the weight of their decisions as they become mainstream, while legal language remains purposefully vague as to allow for maneuvering in the future.

Dedicated Processes to Take Care of Your Data

Of course, technology companies aren’t sitting around doing nothing all day. They put their minds to answering questions like these. As such, many major technology companies have a succession or inactive account management process. But they don’t all end up with a relative or loved one in possession of the data.

Let’s look at the policies of some major web services and technology providers.



As previously mentioned, Facebook is pretty steadfast in its resolve. Once someone dies, an account is either shut down or memorialized Facebook Now Lets You Give Someone Your Account When You Die What happens to your Facebook profile when you die? Read More . This process is only available to those with a valid death certificate, that Facebook double-checks, as well as permission to act upon behalf of the deceased.

And even though Facebook allows you to download your entire data How to Download Your Entire Facebook History Over the years Facebook has collected a lot of data about you. In this article, we explain how to download your Facebook history and what you're likely to find lurking within. Read More , this same feature is not available after the fact.


Like Facebook, Twitter allows an executor to permanently delete your profile. That said, Twitter are clear that the account holder is the only person who they’ll allow direct access, stating that:

“For privacy reasons we are not able to provide access to a deceased user’s account regardless of their relationship to the deceased.”

Twitter is, however, a more public communication medium than the private messages of Facebook (and other social platforms).


It is possible to download the entire Tweet history for an individual user. So long as the account isn’t deleted, it will remain online for you to browse.

Google Accounts

Google has a robust system in place, but that doesn’t mean it is easy. Google accounts can cover a huge number of services: email, social, document hosting, Android devices, and more. As such, each one requires specific attention.

Central to handling Google accounts is the Inactive Account Manager. Inactive Account Manager works slightly differently to other services Protect Your Online Persona If You Die With Google Inactive Account Manager One of the most common problems that occur when people have an unfortunate accident at a younger age, is that usually that person has done absolutely nothing to set their affairs in order in the... Read More .


Instead of relying on family member activating a password release, Google monitors your account for sign-ins, Gmail usage, Android check-ins, and more. If the account remains inactive for a specific amount of time, the service sends an email containing content created during the setup process (your own words).


Like Google, Microsoft has one of the most comprehensive account access and transfer policies. Officially known as the Microsoft Next of Kin Process, a loved one with the correct documentation can request a litany of information, including:

  • Emails and attachments.
  • Contact lists.
  • Address books.

The information Microsoft provides is delivered to you. They do not provide a direct password for an account. Due to this, some users experience disappointment when they realize a locked computer will remain so.

To start the Next of Kin process, send an email to, including documentation to verify the death as well as your relationship to the deceased.


An incident with Apple featured earlier in this article. And while Apple employees aren’t monsters, they are steadfast in their dedication to the protection of account privacy — even in death. This makes Apple one of the more difficult major technology purveyors to extract an account password from.

Officially, once a person dies, their account dies with them, along with everything licensed to the account over the years. Of course, that means potential destruction of music, films, photos, and much more, let alone the monetary value.

A court order may well be necessary to force Apple to play ball and grant access to a loved one’s account. However, some unofficial sources have suggested contacting in hopes that the process doesn’t become painful.


Steam is an interesting one. While not dealing with private or personal data, Steam make it quite clear that:

“You may not sell or charge others for the right to use your account, or otherwise transfer your account, nor may you sell, charge others for the right to use, or transfer any Subscriptions other than if and as expressly permitted by this Agreement (including any Subscription Terms or Rules of Use).”

The Steam Subscriber Agreement later continues, “The Software is licensed, not sold. Your license confers no title or ownership in the Software.”

They also clearly state that “Valve does not recognize any transfers of subscriptions (including transfers by operations of law) that are made outside of Steam.”

Unless the deceased has written their password down, those games are gone. In fact, consider that by contacting Steam user support and asking for help to unlock the account How to Enable Two-Factor Authentication for Your Gaming Accounts Two-factor authentication provides an extra layer of protection for online accounts, and you can easily enable it for your favorite gaming services. Read More , your situation might be immediately worse: they lock the account in the knowledge that the owner has passed away.

WhatsApp, Snapchat, Telegram, and Kik

The official line from this collection of mobile communication apps is similar: messages are private and belong to the contacts. Accessing them is vastly easier than other social media platforms.

A smartphone is a portal into someone’s life. Access to this — if the smartphone doesn’t have its own password — will grant access to the aforementioned services.

The Keys to the Kingdom

How many online accounts do you have?

Think past your Facebook and Instagram accounts, into the depths of online sites. Modding sites, online dating accounts, that weird niche hobby you’d thought you’d like so you signed up — the list can be sprawling. If you’ve (potentially unwisely) saved all your username and password combinations to your browser, you can scroll through and look.

Had a look? If you’re security conscious, you might be using a password manager. They keep your passwords safe How Password Managers Keep Your Passwords Safe Passwords that are hard to crack are also hard to remember. Want to be safe? You need a password manager. Here's how they work and how they keep you safe. Read More and you only have to remember one difficult password instead of 56 variations of a terrible one.

The password manager is the key to the kingdom. If your loved one used a password manager, realizing their password will immediately provide extensive access to their online world.

Unfortunately, if the next of kin are not listed as trusted, the passwords will remain secure.

There Ought to Be a Law

The succession of an online account will become increasingly relevant as the internet ages. Ensuring you have your digital estate organized will become as important as writing a will.

For some people, it already is.

The young girl struck by a subway train lived in Germany, a country well noted for its dedication to privacy laws. U.S. residents have attempted the same process — pleading with Facebook to release private data — but to no avail.

Regardless, several U.S. states have enacted laws that ensure families’ rights to access the private data of a loved one. Starting with Delaware in 2014, 25 states have stepped in to create laws that specifically protect digital assets 5 Incredible Tech Lawsuits That Shaped the Digital World Lawsuits play an important role in shaping the direction of technological developments, even in the world of software. Here are a few cases that were so important, we're still feeling the effects today. Read More . You can find the full state-by-state list right here. Check the state where you live, as laws can vary.

The development and enactment of specific digital asset state laws doesn’t mean access your loved one’s data will be easy. Technology companies argue that state digital asset laws directly contravene the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, a federal law that prohibits custodians of digital assets releasing them without permission or a court order.

So even if the state rules in your favor, you’re still going to need a potentially expensive court order to back your claim.

Where Does the Internet of Things Fit?

The Internet of Things (IoT) seems to be consistently under attack. IoT smart devices relay a stream of data from specialized connected devices. That fitness band tracker on your wrist? Yup, that is an IoT connected device, streaming personal fitness data to a server.

And while IoT companies anonymize your data for their own use, there are plenty of instances where this data powers individual profiles (such as your fitness progress).

Similarly, tracking down that data is difficult. You can isolate specific sources, like a fitness tracker, or a smartphone assistant app, but the IoT comprises of many more data sensors 7 Reasons Why The Internet of Things Should Scare You The potential benefits of the Internet of Things grow bright, while the dangers are cast into the quiet shadows. It's time to draw attention to these dangers with seven terrifying promises of the IoT. Read More .

And as we have seen, deleting the data isn’t as easy as hitting a switch. Take Fitbit, whose “customers have a reasonable expectation that we keep their account data private and secure, so for those reasons we only close accounts in accordance with our Terms of Service, Privacy Policy, and applicable law.” You will have to email your status as executor and a copy of the death certificate or a published obituary to

But even then, “sending a request and supporting documentation does not guarantee that we will be able to assist you.”

Who Owns Your Data After Your Death?

At face value, with a pre-emptive process when you’re breathing, posthumous data management isn’t too difficult. Technology and social media companies maintain that data protection and privacy is everything.

Electronic Frontier Foundation policy analyst Adi Kamdar said:

“People live with personal information that they do not wish to share with, say, their parents, or their significant others. The best course of action should be to respect this decision, even after death, unless the deceased takes steps to allow their estate’s administrator access to their email.”

It is easy to agree with this viewpoint. Until it is your child that is dead, and technology companies are unwilling to help.

What are your digital succession plans? Have you ensured safe digital passage for your accounts? How about your websites, your passwords, your Bitcoin wallets, and more? 

Image Credits: Sabuhi Novruzov/Shutterstock

Related topics: Law, Online Privacy.

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  1. Mary Elizabeth E Blaney
    July 24, 2017 at 2:05 pm

    The new Yahoo sucks and if you think more changes will help, forget it. You really want to
    screw us up. The last change, my friend was panicking because she lost all her folders. I said well have your husband search and they should turn up. No they never did. I said mine is
    fine and all of a sudden my folders did the same thing. All of a sudden that didn't matter, the whole of our computers was gone and a new and ugly line started. To this day I hate it. I can not send an e-mail to a number of parties as in 10 recipients. Also, many items I try saving go to the wrong place. I have screamed because there is nowhere to tell you what of 100 problems I am having and to get help. I finally found this place to tell you how really bad my yahoo mail has become. Do you have a mailbox where people can give their input????? No you changed it and never got our feedback, and it isn't just me, I told you others in my friends and family are terribly sorry you have done this to us. If you are now changing it more., the bunch of us will have to fine another happy place. Yahoo you have become very incompetent in what you have done and getting feedback as to how we can possibly live with you. You make another change and we have no option but to find some other mail. What everyone loves is uninterrupted service and you are now doing it for the second time. Unacceptable!!!!!

  2. ReadandShare
    June 29, 2017 at 3:32 am

    I agree with the German stance, and Facebook too. There should be no automatic assumption that when you die, your digital life becomes one big open book to your kin! I am sure most people will agree to that -- even teens!

    • Gavin Phillips
      July 9, 2017 at 4:42 pm

      Aye. I also agree. I think digital inheritance will become increasingly important in the next few years.

  3. Howard A Pearce
    June 28, 2017 at 8:25 pm

    no one owns your data as data cannot be owned - unless you support intellectual property rights. Indeed , once your data becomes public, then it is public - exclusive of those initiatives to claim the SOME "PRIVATE" data remain yours - which will be decided by the government or the FCC. The history is that data once made public remains public.

    What is owned is the DOCUMENTS or the PC the data is stored on (which allows you to try to keep it private)
    And the rules of property ownership have already been decided.

    • ReadandShare
      June 29, 2017 at 3:38 am

      I think the issue is about privacy and access - not 'ownership' per se. The title of the article is unfortunate. We all know that legally, dead people can't "own" anything.

  4. brkkab
    June 28, 2017 at 4:48 pm

    Totally bullshit. The girl was a minor. Her parent's could've been sued if the girl ever did anything wrong in life. Therefore her parents own her data, not anyone else. Not any social network.
    I'm pretty sure I know what's gonna kill me and when I reach stage 4 of kidney disease and need to start getting the various surgeries to prepare for dialysis, all my social accounts will be closed.
    Glad I'm not the type that post's personal information anyway.
    I'm almost 50 and don't need everyone know what I'm doing or where I'm at or going 24/7.
    I don't break any laws, so I need nobodies permission or o.k for anything I choose to do.

    • Rob
      June 29, 2017 at 8:10 am

      According to German law that is partually true, the parents are responsible for possible damage caused by their kids but that is it.... in case of a face-book account there is no damage but there is certainly a matter of privacy.

    • Gavin Phillips
      July 9, 2017 at 4:47 pm

      Hey Brkkab,

      I think that is an interesting way to look at it, and probably another issue (and illustration) as to the law not keeping pace with digital developments. I think Facebook still hold the upper hand in this case, especially given data protection laws in Germany.

      But even if her parents "own" the data after she dies (which technically, they don't anyway as Facebook is always the "owner" of data stored on that social media network), they don't own the rights to her passwords, which died with her.