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Digital Video Formats and Video Conversion Explained

Simon Slangen 10-07-2009

There are many reasons why one would want to convert their videos The Mega Guide to Media File Conversion Tools in Windows Wondering how to best convert that media file? This is your guide out of the media file jungle. We compiled the most relevant media file conversion tools and show you how to use them. Read More . More so if we’re talking about DVDs. Sure, they’re the favourite food of your DVD player, but they’ve got a huge filesize and are impractically subdivided. To be honest, the only reason we’re still using the format is because everyone keeps buying DVD players. The VOB format is incredibly outdated, and several years behind on current encoding development.


As for other video files – times evolve. The same filesize that allowed us to watch mediocre quality AVIs in the past, now allows us to store HD 720p MP4s. Technology moves on, and so should you.

Converting your video files 5 Easy-to-use Freeware Video Converters Read More isn’t always easy. Although, more free apps that can handle the job hit the market every year, there are a lot of technical gibberish involved.

If you want to know what you’re doing in the process, read on for a section-oriented guide with some easy-to-grasp, practical information about the concept and the different factors of video compression. Video Converting in a nutshell, if you will.

Video Containers

Digital Video Formats and Video Conversion Explained mp4Video Containers are what most people use to differentiate between various video files. You should know most of these by their names. The most popular ones include:

  • AVI
  • MPEG / MPEG-4
  • MKV
  • RM / RMV
  • MOV
  • WMV

The container is designed to store the different data types. These include audio, video, and sometimes even subtitles. They’re like the boxes in which we put our candy, or the cars in which we drive our kids around. There’s a great comparison of these container formats and their respective restrictions on Wikipedia.

Note that the biggest difference between these containers lies in the support they give for underlying bits of information. Different containers provide support for different audio and video compressions. Some will enable the inclusion of multiple audio, or subtitle tracks, where others will allow only one, or none at all. If you want to add subtitles to an AVI or WMV file, you might have to burn them into the picture How to Add Subtitles to a Movie or TV Series Unfortunately, content you download off the internet normally doesn't come with subtitles. Thankfully, it's easy enough to add subtitles to a movie or TV series. Here's how... Read More .

Video/Audio Codecs

The real difference between most video files relies less on the used container (and if so, only by means of restriction), but more on the video or audio codec – what’s in the box. The video codec defines how the information is processed. Some of the most popular video codecs include

  • DivX / XviD
  • h264 / x264
  • Theora

You should remember that the content, or the way the content is stored is not always defined by the container, although it’s often limited (e.g. some containers support multiple audio streams, whereas AVI only supports one). As a result, there are several different available combinations between containers and codecs.


Digital Video Formats and Video Conversion Explained codecs

Different codecs make for different sound or picture quality in relation to file size. The most famous and most often used are the AVI containers, with the DivX or (free) XviD codec (but between you and I – they’re a tad outdated and have a horrible quality/filesize ratio).

I highly recommend using the uprising x264 codec (which has a delicious quality/filesize ratio). You can use it with a MKV container if you’re planning to use multiple audio and subtitle tracks, or else with a MP4 container. The MP4 container only supports one video and audio layer, but has a higher support rate and can be played on iPods, PSPs and most of the newer mobile phones as well.


A bitrate defines the speed of the data transfer. In terms of video, this means more data is included in a shorter audio/visual interval.


Most often, you can leave the bitrate as is, or play a little with it if you’re the adventurous type. Higher bitrate means a bigger datastream, so for the ultimate quality/filesize ratio, your bitrate shouldn’t be too low (which removes people from your car), nor too high (buying a bigger car than you actually need).

In a lot of applications, it’s also possible to calculate the bitrate of a movie by providing a target size. This allows you to get the best quality out of your video, while staying under a set file size.

Multiple Passes

This is pretty self-explanatory. Multiple passes defines how many times the application will process the entire film to reach the end result. These days, a two-pass encoding is standard.

Digital Video Formats and Video Conversion Explained 3084158879 f9ecafaf28 o


Obviously, when working with multiple-pass encoding, it will take longer to convert your video. If your system’s equiped with a quad-core processor, this won’t be the most of your worries, but with an older computer, you’ll better run it at night or when you’re off to the pub.

Conversion Tools

There are a lot of applications that will do the job and MakeUseOf has reviewed some great, free ones in the past. Be sure to check out Handbrake How to Add Subtitles to a Movie or TV Series Unfortunately, content you download off the internet normally doesn't come with subtitles. Thankfully, it's easy enough to add subtitles to a movie or TV series. Here's how... Read More – which is available for Windows, Mac and Linux – if you want to convert your DVDs to video files. For file-to-file conversions, take a look at Will Muellers Top Free Media Converters For Windows or Varun’s article on Linux video convertors The 5 Best Apps to Convert Audio and Video Files on Linux Need to convert your media files in Linux? Use these tools to convert audio or convert video in almost any Linux distro. Read More .

We hope you’ve learned from this guide, and will be able to process your files to a format that’s easier to handle and share. If you found this article interesting, be sure to check other how to add subtitles to your movies How to Add Subtitles to a Movie or TV Series Unfortunately, content you download off the internet normally doesn't come with subtitles. Thankfully, it's easy enough to add subtitles to a movie or TV series. Here's how... Read More .

If there’s anything you want to ask, or anything you want to share with us or your fellow MakeUseOf readers, the comments section below is open for everyone with a keyboard and a social mind.

Related topics: Online Video, Video Editor.

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    April 6, 2020 at 5:17 pm

    I want answer to this question.
    Error report occured while tried to play a downloaded movies on the net via satellite reciever.,SUPERMAX 212 HD, precisely. The message replayed was"UNSUPPORTED", very amazing. Videos of particular had often being downloaded from the same download application "SNAPTUBE". Some will play and other will diaplay that error.I want to know the way out of this error. Is there anything I can do to convert or any solution to it so that I can play any video of the particular type of downloaded without minding which format it may be?
    Segun Komolafe,

  2. p2pvoice
    April 22, 2015 at 9:41 pm

    Thanks for this baseline information. I have been playing with different conversion tools. The one question that continues to nag me is this: Why the output video file sizes are different. If I take the same source AVI file and convert to MP4 with same resolution (no changes to any other settings either) as the source file, I get different output file sizes. For example, with an AVI source file, Handbrake gave me a much smaller .m4v file size then Freemake's .mp4. When play those files, they look the same.

    Are those files really different? What is going on? Also, when I read comparison reviews of vodeo converters, there hardly any discussion about output video file size. I only bring this up here because you are the only one who has touched on the subject of file size in your introduction.


  3. aztec
    December 21, 2009 at 2:40 pm

    Can anyone explain me how is that the dvd movies
    (bought from a store) are dvd-rom dl (double layer) !!!
    and they play on non (reported) double layer home players ???

  4. Aruna
    December 16, 2009 at 10:33 pm

    Hi! Nice article.I have been gifted with a JVC averio camcorder.But the file sizes are huge.I need to convert them(without losing the quality) so i can store them on DVD's.I was looking for a way to convert .mod files to other video formats which has less size and without losing picture quality.Could you please suggest such converters?If its free software i would really appreciate....please help.

  5. dfyxjc
    July 17, 2009 at 12:43 pm

    In a lot of applications, it’s also possible to calculate the bitrate of a movie by providing a target size

  6. Smithy
    July 10, 2009 at 5:57 pm

    Nice article! I was looking for a way to convert mini-DVDs to a regular DVD. Do any of the tools mentioned here or the articles referenced here provide a way to do this? I am planning to put multiple mini-DVD movies onto 1 DVD, however, I haven't found any guide that will help.

    • Simon Slangen
      July 11, 2009 at 3:42 pm

      Mini-DVDs are basically just little DVDs. This means you can use regular DVD ripping / converting software.

      You could simply make a copy of it to DVD, but because you want to put together multiple mini-DVD movies, you'll have to convert them first. Use HandBrake to convert them to your computer, then use DVD Flick to burn them to DVD.

  7. Darko
    July 10, 2009 at 12:26 pm

    Great article, thanks.