The Most Common Wi-Fi Standards and Types Explained
Wi-Fi is a catch-all term. In a sense, it is very precise. It explains a specific method you can use to connect to the internet.
There are many different types of Wi-Fi standards. Your router, laptop, tablet, smartphone, and smart home devices all use different wireless standards to connect to the internet. Wireless standards change every few years, too. Updates bring faster internet, better connections, more simultaneous connections, and so on.
The issue is, for most people, the sheer litany of wireless standards and specifications is confusing. Here’s the full rundown on Wi-Fi standards.
Wi-Fi Standards Explained
Wireless standards are a set of services and protocols that dictate how your Wi-Fi network (and other data transmission networks) acts.
The most common set of wireless standards you will encounter is the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh. The IEEE update the 802.11 Wi-Fi standard every few years. The current Wi-Fi standard is 802.11ac, while the next generation Wi-Fi standard, 802.11ax, is in the process of rolling out.
A Brief History of Wireless Standards
Not all old Wi-Fi standards are obsolete. At least, not yet. Here is a brief history of Wi-Fi standards, and whether the standard is still active.
The original! Created in 1997, this now-defunct standard supported a blazing fast maximum connection speed of megabits per second (Mbps). Devices using this haven’t been made for over a decade and won’t work with today’s equipment.
Created in 1999, this version of Wi-Fi works on the 5GHz band. This was done with the hope of encountering less interference since many devices (like most wireless phones) also use the 2.4GHz band. 802.11a is fairly quick too, with maximum data rates topping out at 54Mbps. However, the 5GHz frequency has more difficulty with objects that are in the signal’s path, so the range is often poor.
Also created in 1999, this standard uses the more typical 2.4GHz band and can achieve a maximum speed of 11Mbps. 802.11b was the standard that kick-started Wi-Fi’s popularity.
Designed in 2003, the 802.11g standard upped the maximum data rate to 54Mbps while retaining usage of the reliable 2.4GHz band. This resulted in widespread adoption of the standard.
Introduced in 2009, this version had slow initial adoption. 802.11n operates on both 2.4GHz and 5GHz, as well as supporting multi-channel usage. Each channel offers a maximum data rate of 150Mbps, which means the maximum data rate of the standard is 600Mbps.
The ac standard is what you will find most wireless devices using at the time of writing. Initially released in 2014, ac drastically increases the data throughput for Wi-Fi devices up to a maximum of 1,300 megabits per second. Furthermore, ac adds MU-MIMO support, additional Wi-Fi broadcast channels for the 5GHz band, and support for more antenna on a single router.
Next up for your router and your wireless devices is the ax standard. When ax completes its rollout, you will have access to theoretical network throughput of 10Gbps—around a 30-40 percent improvement over the ac standard. Furthermore, wireless ax will increase network capacity by adding broadcast subchannels, upgrading MU-MIMO, and allowing more simultaneous data streams.
Can All Wi-Fi Standards Communicate?
Two devices using the same Wi-Fi standard can communicate without restriction. Issues arise, however, when you try to connect two devices that use different, potentially incompatible wireless standards.
- In recent times, your router and devices using 802.11ac can communicate happily.
- Devices that use 802.11b, g, and n can all communicate with an ac router.
- 11b cannot communicate with a, and vice versa.
- 11g cannot communicate with b, and vice versa.
The original 1997 standard (now known as 802.11 legacy) is now obsolete, while the a and b standards are nearing the end of their lifespan.
Legacy Wi-Fi Standards Firmware Issues
If you buy a new device, you make your purchase with the knowledge that when you get it home, it will connect to your router. If you have an old router, using an old Wi-Fi standard, that isn’t that case.
It is the same if you have a legacy device.
For instance, if you bring home a shiny new 802.11ac router to beam Wi-Fi to all of the dark recesses, it doesn’t mean your old device can suddenly use the ac standard. You will receive some of the benefits of the router, such as the range increase, but your connection is only as fast as the device Wi-Fi standard.
If your device is using 802.11n, it will only connect and transmit using the n standard.
What Is Wi-Fi 6?
Wi-Fi 6 is the Wi-Fi Alliance’s wireless standard naming system. The Wi-Fi Alliance argue that the 802.11 terminology is confusing for consumers. They are right; updating one or two letters doesn’t give users much information to work with.
The Wi-Fi Alliance naming system runs concurrently with the IEEE 802.11 convention. Here’s how the naming standards correlate:
- Wi-Fi 6: 802.11ax (coming in 2019)
- Wi-Fi 5: 802.11ac (2014)
- Wi-Fi 4: 802.11n (2009)
- Wi-Fi 3: 802.11g (2003)
- Wi-Fi 2: 802.11a (1999)
- Wi-Fi 1: 802.11b (1999)
- Legacy: 802.11 (1997)
Now Secure Your Wi-Fi Router While You Can
Upgrading your devices to the latest Wi-Fi standard comes with heaps of benefits, not least the speed increase. Upgrading your router is that little bit easier now you can differentiate between the various Wi-Fi standards.
One thing to consider is your network security. Here are simple tips on how you can secure your home Wi-Fi network in minutes !