Internet Technology Explained

What SSH Is & How It’s Different From FTP [Technology Explained]

Simon Slangen 16-11-2010

<firstimage=”//”>what is sshFTP 6 Good Online FTP Clients For When You Are On The Road Read More and SSH How to Tunnel Web Traffic with SSH Secure Shell Read More are both network protocols that run on top of the TCP/IP layer, just like HTTP. In plain English, it’s a certain way for devices to communicate with each other over a network.


Different ways of communication are used in different circumstances. There are different uses and different strengths. But exactly how SSH and FTP relate is unclear to most.

This installment in the Technology Explained series aims to shed some light on the two protocols and their differences.

Shell & Shell Accounts

Let’s get some basic terminology out of the way. To understand the purpose of SSH, you need to be familiar with some of the underlying elements.

The shell of a computer is a piece of software that allows users to directly communicate with the kernel, the very core of an operating system. The shell can have either a graphical or command-line interface (read: text input), or both.


what is ssh

A shell account, on the other hand, is a personal account that gives the user access to a shell on a different computer. They used to be commonplace and supplied by the Internet Service Providers, used to work with file storage, email accounts, newsgroups and more. The common denominator is that a shell account is used to enter commands on a remote computer.

Secure Shell Protocol (SSH)

Just like a web browser uses the HTTP protocol to talk with websites, a shell account needs a certain protocol to enable data exchange (read: communication) between the two networked devices. Meet SSH – Secure Shell Protocol.

SSH uses a public key encryption How To Easily Encrypt Email or Text Documents [Windows] Read More and was developed to replace Telnet and other insecure shell protocols. The two major versions, SSH-1 and SSH-2, are now the dominating protocols to access shell accounts.


ssh client

These days, SSH is used to log into and execute code on remote hosts, browse the web using encrypted proxy clients, and transfer files – even setting up a Virtual Private Network What Is The Definition Of A Virtual Private Network Virtual private networks are more important now than ever before. But do you know what they are? Here's what you need to know. Read More .

SSH clients are available for all major operating systems. Unix-based systems, including Linux and Mac OS X, can use OpenSSH. Also check the OpenSSH website for Mac OS and Windows alternatives. PuTTY is one of the most prominent Windows clients.

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) versus FTP

File transfer and VPN applications don’t run on SSH by default, but make use of SFTP – the SSH File Transfer Protocol. Mind you, SFTP is not the FTP protocol running over SSH, but a different file transfer protocol developed as an extension for SSH-2. SFTP is always used to transfer files over SSH, but it’s actually designed so it can be used in compliance with other protocols. That’s not for this article, though.


what is ssh

Although not in the letter, for the end-user, SFTP can be seen as a secure relative of FTP. The latter transmits all data in plain-text. Packet intercepts can thus reveal crucial and private data, including your user name and password! SFTP, being an SSH-2 extension, uses public key security. This means the data is encrypted when it is being transmitted and potential intercepts are relatively useless.

SFTP as such is included in most popular FTP suites The 3 Best Free FTP Clients for Windows FTP is a useful file sharing method and the go-to method for uploading files to a web host. Here are the best FTP clients you can grab for free. Read More , albeit often without other SSH functionality.

I hope you’ve learned something from this article. If you’ve got any questions or suggestions, head to the comments section below!


Image credit: Shutterstock

Related topics: Computer Networks, FTP.

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  1. Tjallum
    June 29, 2016 at 7:51 am

    Great explanaition.. thank you!

  2. joe
    April 8, 2016 at 11:43 am

    Finally I find an understandable explanation of SSH. It's great to find a programmer that is very good at writing!

  3. lawrence
    May 13, 2015 at 4:46 pm

    very interesting please forward me documents am studying CISCO

  4. James Bruce
    November 18, 2010 at 8:53 am

    For any readers who would like to try out SSH, bear in mind that most shared hosting providers (like godaddy etc) don't allow SSH - you will need a virtual private server or better to be able to use SSH. Having said that, if you can do SSH it makes moving sites and databases around a whole lot easier.

    • Aibek
      November 23, 2010 at 7:46 pm

      Agree with James, once you have tried using SSH you will never look at FTP again. Not only it's faster but also more secure.