Technology Explained

Is In-Flight Wi-Fi Worth It? What to Know Before Wasting Money on It

Gavin Phillips Updated 08-01-2019

Long flights are one of the worst times to be disconnected from the internet. Fortunately, more and more airlines are now offering in-flight Wi-Fi, allowing passengers to check their emails and surf the web while 40,000 feet in the sky.


So, how does it work? Which airlines offer it? And more importantly, what are the downsides? Is it actually worth the money?

How In-Flight Wi-Fi Works

On the last flight you took, I’m sure you noticed your cell phone losing its connection. Regular telephone networking doesn’t work when you reach a certain height. How, then, do airplanes offer an internet connection some 12 kilometers above the earth’s crust? There is a simple answer to this.

Modern planes have antennas allowing them to pick up signals from one of two sources: ground stations or satellites.

The first method uses a series of overlapping ground stations that constantly beam cellular signals into the sky. Your aircraft connects to the ground stations using a series of antennas situated in the underside of the aircraft fuselage. The connection forwards to a server and router situated on the aircraft and then broadcasts throughout the cabin.

The major downside to ground station in-flight Wi-Fi is the lack of coverage on any flight that crosses a large expanse of water or mountainous terrain.


The other method uses communication satellites. Communication satellites broadcast directly to antennas situated on the top of the aircraft fuselage. In-flight Wi-Fi using communication satellites offer increased reliability, coverage, and speeds. Unfortunately, an improved service also comes with an increase in cost.

A Short Note on Network Speed and Terminology

In this article, I will refer to internet speed in megabytes per second (MB/s). According to Speedtest, the average broadband connection in the US had a download speed of 12.03MB/s and an upload speed of 4.11MB/s.

For most people, the download speed is important as it values how quickly the internet data reaches your machine. However, if you are sending information to the internet, such as in an online game or uploading files to a CMS, the upload speed is just as important.

Ku-Band In-Flight Wi-Fi

GoGo Air is one of the largest in-flight Wi-Fi providers in the United States. A wide range of U.S. airlines currently use GoGo Air’s ATG4 (Air-to-Ground 4).


ATG4 was a major step for in-flight Wi-Fi systems, boosting the number of antennas on each aircraft as well as the number of ATG towers to over 200 across the continental U.S., Canada, and Alaska. The system and network upgrade meant each aircraft could make use of 1.22MB/s (It was previously just 0.38MB/s.)

Yes, that’s an entire aircraft using 1.22MB/s. It doesn’t take a genius to realize that a handful of passengers can saturate that bandwidth, let alone 300 passengers feverishly simultaneously attempting to stream Netflix.

GoGo Air’s latest update shifts their in-flight Wi-Fi technology to a series of relay satellites. 2Ku, as the technology is known, uses a relay of satellites (via SES and Intelsat) to make use of the Ku band portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. 2Ku uses two Ku-band antennas to provide separate download and upload connections.

The Ku-band antennas provide a theoretical peak download of 12.5MB/s, depending on the satellite connection. (That’s very similar to the average US household connection.)


Actual in-flight speed tests from several journalists show the actual figure to be lower, although with much better upload speeds. The antennas are smaller than existing options, decreasing drag, turbulence, and fuel-burn associated with in-flight Wi-Fi antennas.

2Ku represents a significant leap forward for in-flight Wi-Fi connectivity. However, it is difficult for airlines to change their in-flight Wi-Fi provider. Unlike your home connection, an airline must be retrofitted with the correct antennas and routers for the specific service, and these changes don’t come cheap.

The Downsides of In-Flight Wi-Fi

The main Achilles heel of in-flight Wi-Fi is connectivity. More airlines than ever offer some form of in-flight Wi-Fi connection, but whether it is worth using is another question.

There are a few things for you to consider before buying in-flight Wi-Fi credits for your upcoming trip.


1. It Isn’t Cheap

Even though coverage is better than ever, the price of in-flight Wi-Fi remains extremely high. Restrictions on in-flight data use are easing as in-flight connectivity and network capacity increases, but you will still pay over-the-odds for a half-decent connection.

A few years back, travel blogger Ben Schlappig snapped possibly one of the worst in-flight Wi-Fi offerings of all time. Schlappig was flying business class on an Iberia A340 from New York to Madrid, which had OnAir Wi-Fi.

The cheapest Wi-Fi package offered 4MB for around $5. Each additional 100KB cost $0.17. Yes, you read that right: kilobyte.


Given the average web page size is now around 3MB, you’re not going to be doing much of anything. However, that experience was a couple of years back now, and things are slightly better, depending on the airline.

For instance, Norwegian offer free Wi-Fi for all passengers. You will fight among yourselves for the bandwidth but won’t receive a charge for the data you use or the time connected. On the flipside, Emirates passengers receive up to 20MB and two hours of free Wi-Fi access, but after that, you must pay between $9.99 to $15.99 for an in-flight Wi-Fi package.

2. Many Sites Are Restricted

Unlike your home internet connection, your in-flight connection will come with an extensive range of restricted sites. This can be for various reasons. Obviously, sites offering adult content of all varieties are off limits 5 Ways Visiting Adult Websites Is Bad for Your Security & Privacy While pornography is often discussed in the context of morality, there's a huge security-and-privacy angle that is often overlooked. If you know what to look out for, the safer you'll be. Read More . Airline Wi-Fi providers work with extremely limited bandwidth and must preserve the available data for other passengers.

Depending on the existing in-flight network infrastructure, you will also find restrictions for live video streaming services such as Amazon Prime, Netflix, and Twitch. Before airline JetBlue upgraded their in-flight Wi-Fi, the carrier blocked Snapchat after it added live video services. American Airlines took a similar stance.

In some cases, airlines partner with those video streaming services to offer in-flight content. JetBlue offers every passenger the chance to stream high-quality Amazon Prime video direct to their device, and that’s on their free in-flight Wi-Fi plan.

The upgraded JetBlue Fly-Fi+ allows passengers to use a VPN, play online games, and stream non-Amazon streaming services at the cost of $9 per flight.



3. In-Flight Wi-Fi Is Notoriously Unreliable

While testing Gogo’s incoming 2Ku in-flight Wi-Fi, Ars Technica’s Jonathan M. Gitlin made two important observations. On his flight to the test, using GoGo’s ATG4, it took four minutes to upload four images with a total size of 1.5MB.

At times, he couldn’t even connect to the Ars CMS. ATG4 may have increased connectivity, but upload speeds are still an absolute horror show.

The second observation was the drastic improvement using GoGo’s Ku2 in-flight Wi-Fi, uploading 25 images totaling 26.3MB in just 2 minutes and 13 seconds.

Simply put, your in-flight Wi-Fi won’t compare with your home internet connection or even your 4G mobile connection. The sheer volume of passengers attempting to use the limited bandwidth 7 Reasons Why Your Smartphone Has Slow Internet Speeds Smartphones are the number one way to get online, for email, browsing, and shopping. But why is your phone's internet so slow? Read More will always create issues.

Increasing the bandwidth will certainly help your in-flight Wi-Fi experience, but users will still saturate whatever available data there is.

An Airbus A321 in high-density configuration (the one used overwhelmingly by low-budget carriers) holds 236 passengers. A typical Emirates Airbus A380 with a three-class layout (containing economy, business, and first-class seats) holds an astonishing 517 passengers.

You’ve got to fight all of them for internet access.

In short, you need to simultaneously lower your expectations, while also appreciating the technical marvel that is in-flight Wi-Fi.

Which Airlines Offer In-Flight Wi-Fi?

Domestic US flyers are extremely lucky in that almost all carriers have some form of in-flight Wi-Fi. Rather than list the airlines that do offer it, I might as well mention the major ones that don’t:

  • Allegiant
  • Frontier
  • Hawaiian

Allegiant and Frontier are low-budget carriers and are unlikely to install the costly hardware in-flight Wi-Fi requires. Passengers using those services want cheap flights and offering an in-flight Wi-Fi amenity isn’t cost effective. After all, anything that increases the cost of a ticket is to be avoided.

Hawaiian, on the other hand, isn’t a low budget carrier. The Hawaiian state flag carrier is investigating in-flight Wi-Fi options and expects to decide in 2019.

The United States third budget carrier, Spirit, is currently upgrading its entire fleet with in-flight Wi-Fi.

Outside of the US, carriers are also taking up the in-flight Wi-Fi mantle.

Europe and the Rest of the World

RyanAir, EasyJet, Norwegian, Vueling, Wizz Air, and Eurowings dominate the inter-European market.

europe top 10 low cost carriers chart

In-flight Wi-Fi access is a mixed bag. Vueling, Eurowings, and Norwegian all offer in-flight Wi-Fi; Vueling and Norwegian are free for every passenger.

EasyJet has a device connection portal on some flights, depending on the age of the airplane, where you can connect to and stream a limited range of films and shows, but no actual web browsing, social media, or otherwise. Wizz Air has nothing all, so make sure you load up your devices with shows before leaving home.

But that’s just the budget carriers. The national and long-haul carriers all now offer in-flight Wi-Fi in some format, while British Airways is aiming to update its entire fleet by 2019.

Across the Middle East and Asia, it is a similar story. There are numerous low cost and premium carriers all offering in-flight Wi-Fi. ANA, Emirates, Cebu Pacific, China Airlines, China Eastern, EVA Air, Etihad, Garuda Indonesia, Philippine Airways, Qatar Airways, Quantas, and others allow you to connect to the internet on your flight.

Of course, check each airline for specific details before you fly 5 Tips for Scoring Cheap Flight Tickets With Skyscanner If you're planning on taking a trip, Skyscanner can save you tons of money with cheap flight tickets. Here are a few tricks you should know about. Read More as to avoid disappointment (or shock at a terrible deal).

One massive misnomer on the global in-flight Wi-Fi market is India. In 2016, the Indian government banned in-flight Wi-Fi, despite assurances from the Indian aviation ministry that the technology is completely safe. Other airlines even went as far as turning off in-flight Wi-Fi to comply with Indian airspace regulations.

In May 2018, the Indian government and Telecom Commission approved the introduction of in-flight Wi-Fi to flights within India, as well as those aircraft within its airspace.

In-Flight Wi-Fi Is a Last Resort

Advances to in-flight Wi-Fi technology mean your chances of getting online while gliding through the sky are decent—but not excellent. In some cases, you will pay over the odds for a poor connection. Times are changing, though, The advent of GoGo’s Ku-band in-flight Wi-Fi will force other hardware suppliers and network operators to further invest in their in-flight Wi-Fi platforms.

Additional investment, development, and research can only be a good thing for passengers that just want to watch a film or send an invoice as they head off on holiday.

Need to travel soon? Here’s how to find cheap international flights using Kiwi. Keep in mind that you can sell your non-refundable travel tickets 4 Sites Where You Can Sell Non-Refundable Travel Tickets Cheap flights are non-refundable. But thanks to these sites, you won't have to lose all your money if you can't make the flight. Read More in case your travel plans change.

Image Credits: A319 (Spirit Airlines), Emirates/Flickr

Related topics: Buying Tips, Save Money, Travel, Wi-Fi.

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  1. eogkkgrypw
    January 20, 2020 at 10:47 am


  2. JamesPotter
    July 12, 2016 at 9:59 am

    Airlines should also emphasize to increase security on their WiFi. Currently, airline WiFi are not secured and the users' data can be easily interrupted and compromised. Only a few people know the risk of using these WiFi without encryption, those who know usually uses a VPN to stay secure and anonymous, for example, I use Ivacy to stay anonymous. Hence, airlines should invest on it.

  3. anon
    May 26, 2016 at 7:03 pm

    Gogo is more expensive for laptops than phones. I've never understood why. In Chrome, go into developer tools and switch to phone view. you may have to close and reopen Chrome. Gogo will then give you the mobile connection prices. After you connect, switch back to ltop mode.

  4. Phuc Vinh
    May 23, 2016 at 3:41 am

    Thailand's NokAir also provides wifi for free on some of their fleets

  5. TJK
    May 21, 2016 at 6:56 pm

    Add to the list of operators outside (and in!) the US Iceland Air. I've traveled with them twice, and while I didn't test it out, it was an option.

    • TJK
      May 21, 2016 at 6:57 pm

      Pardon me, I missed it in the list. I could have sworn I didn't see it listed...

  6. Shawn Rosvold
    May 19, 2016 at 10:55 pm

    The last time I flew United was a couple of months ago, so this may not be the case now, but I could not get the wifi to work properly on my Chromebook. It took a while for me to find out that their wifi system, whatever it is, does not work with Chrome OS. Of course, this was after I paid for the connection. I was able to switch the wifi to my phone, so I could get on the internet. I complained to United with no response.

    • Matthew Hughes
      May 20, 2016 at 11:50 am

      United's offering is really weird, as it differs significantly from aircraft to aircraft. I can't offer any practical advice though, as I don't fly United. I tend to fly OneWorld Alliance members (BA/AA).