Does USB debugging in Android improve the transfer rate of files from a PC to Android?
If not, is there any way to transfer files faster from Android to PC and vice-versa?
well if you have ssd drive on your android then red/write will increase:) you can try some file transfer applications like teracopy, extremecopy, FastCopy...
No Android device I know of has an "SSD," they all have flash memory (which is similar to what is used in an SSD, but without an ATA controller).
correct No Android device I know of has an “SSD", but this can help speed read write maybe in the coming years they will have that:) Android FASTER
The read and write speed is dependent on the USB hardware on the phone, the USB hardware on the computer, the speed of the memory card (internal or external memory of the phone), the hard drive speed, hard disk activity, the USB cable speed, etc. The main reason would be the USB hardware of the phone and the speed of the internal or external memory card being used for the transfer. For best speed, use an external SD card that is compatible with the phone in a card reader that is connected to the computer to transfer files, and then insert the card into the phone. Otherwise use an app like Airdroid, Wi-Fi File Explorer, etc., to transfer files over Wi-Fi. About the only way to speed up the transfer speed through USB connection would be using a high speed SD card and high speed cable, but then the speed would be limited to the USB hardware on the phone. USB debugging mode has nothing to do with transfer speeds.
In a nutshell, no. If USB speeds are *very* slow, then you could look at using WiFi for file transfer, but on the whole, it's the hardware that limits your speed.
If your USB connection on computer and Android device is USB 2.0, then the transfer speed should be 480Mbits/sec; unless you have an 802.11ac or multi-channel 802.11n WiFi (router and Android device, and computer unless using a gigabit wired connection) that's faster than that, then a wired connection over USB 2.0 (or 3.0) should provide the highest speeds.
Low USB connections can be caused by a faulty (or pre-USB 2.0) cable, lots of other traffic on the computer's USB (USB is a shared connection) - for example, transferring files from a USB device through the computer to the Android device will slow things down; or loose or poor connections on the USB cable, forcing lots of retransmits.
Best bet is to try replacing your USB cable.
The hardware limitation is usually caused not not by USB's theoretical speed limit, but by the storage device's access time and transfer rate or other limitations of the hardware (e.g. CPU speed etc).