I just want to know if i can install a particular operating system on a given phone.
Jan has the right place to go to if you want to explore more on options for different devices, though support is not possible on all phones. Your question is like asking if you can install a specific engine in any car. The possibility is yes and no. Without specifics, we cannot give any real answer. Just as you cannot install a Buggatti W-16 in a Smart Car, you cannot install Android on a Motorola RazR flip phone. If the phone has a supported processor, memory, ROM storage space, and RAM, then the possibility is yes, but the modifications to run a different operating system may be very difficult if at all possible, especially for supporting the drivers for the camera, gps if it has one, Wi-Fi adapter, Bluetooth, etc. Even though phones now are computing devices (smart phones), they are not built in the same fashion as computers, nor are the operating systems. If it were, then much more storage space would be need just for the operating system to support most of the built-in devices.
The mostly fitting answer to that is no.
Mobile operating systems are fitted to specific hardware and contain a very limited set of drivers to keep the ROM and memory footprint as small as possible.
Some custom ROMs can be used on a small range of devices and others can be modified using developer tools to work on a small range of devices. But at the end it's all very experimental. Just having a newer revision let alone version of hardware (e.g. a chipset) may brake the support and result in limited functionality e.g. no GPS, no motion sensor or maybe no 3G connectivity.
Even having the same phone from a different mobile provider may cause problems if said provider is using some custom modem firmware or similar.
If you are looking for an alternate operating system I suggest looking through the XDA developer forum. If tit doesn't state support of your preferred operating system for your specific device I wouldn't bother trying it.
Be specific. There are specific procedures to install an OS in a specific phone. Contact your chosen OS developer for details.
phones if they support other OS through hardware requirements they go through different operations to get another OS installed on the phone; So you have to give more info on the phone and on The OS that you like.