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Data science has gone from a newly coined term in 2007 to being one of the most sought-after disciplines in the professional world. But what does a data scientist really do? And how can you break into the field? Here’s what you need to know if you’re looking to get the skills to become a data scientist.

What Do Data Scientists Do?

Data scientists combine statistics, computer science, and data analysis to bring order to the massive amounts of unruly data that are now collected by thousands of companies. It’s well-known that your Facebook account contains valuable information Should You Be Concerned About Your Facebook Data Being Scraped? Should You Be Concerned About Your Facebook Data Being Scraped? How would you feel if you discovered your picture on a website, where people rank the picture as to whether or not you look like a jerk? Well, it's a true story. Read More , and that Google wants to know absolutely everything about you. But now even local start-ups collect data that they hope can be mined and turned into useful strategies for growing their businesses.

The data that companies collect is often very messy — it’s incomplete, disorganized, incoherently labeled, and often just plain wrong. But there’s a lot of valuable information there, and data scientists are the ones who generate insights that can be put into action by the company’s business side of operations.

data-analysis

Many descriptions of data science emphasize the importance of discovery in the field; data scientists might not know what they’re looking for as they go through terabytes of data, but they’ll know when they see something interesting (this need for intuition and discovery is one of the reasons why this is a job that can’t be done well by robots 8 Skilled Jobs That May Soon Be Replaced By Robots 8 Skilled Jobs That May Soon Be Replaced By Robots Are machines coming for your job? You might be surprised. Recent advances in AI are putting white collar jobs at risk. Read More ). They also need to be good at presenting this information to others, as managers and executives aren’t usually well-versed in the language of data analysis as data scientists.

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In short, data scientists analyze massive amounts of data and turn them into actionable strategies. Make no mistake: this is not an easy job. But it’s hugely valuable to companies, and always will be, which is why data scientists can expect to have secure jobs into the future Tech Jobs of the Future: What To Study If You Want a Cool Job Tomorrow Tech Jobs of the Future: What To Study If You Want a Cool Job Tomorrow If you're a student and looking to land a good technology job of the future, understanding the direction of technology will help you position yourself to succeed, and figure out what to study to get... Read More . And they get paid well for these skills: a data scientist can easily make over $90,000 per year.

What Skills Do Data Scientists Need?

As “data science” is a quickly changing and often ill-defined field, the range of skills that you’ll find among data scientists is impressively wide. Most have some training in statistics, data analysis, and mathematics. Almost all have programming experience How To Pick A Programming Language To Learn Today & Get A Great Job In 2 Years How To Pick A Programming Language To Learn Today & Get A Great Job In 2 Years It can take years of dedicated work to become a truly good programmer; so is there a way to choose the right language to start from today, in order to get hired tomorrow? Read More , especially in Python, R, Hadoop, SQL, and other languages that are used for data storage, statistics, and machine learning. Because it’s especially popular in data analysis, learning Python The 5 Best Websites To Learn Python Programming The 5 Best Websites To Learn Python Programming Over the past decade, the Python programming language has exploded in popularity amongst programmers in all areas of coding. From web developers to video game designers to in-house tool creators, many people have fallen in... Read More is a good place to start.

Knowing other data analysis programs as well, like MATLAB, SAS, and Minitab can also be quite useful.

programming-code

The ability to communicate clearly with people who don’t understand machine learning, statistics, or data analysis is also very important. If you find something ground-breaking but can’t explain it to anyone, it’s not going to be of any use. Clear communication is a soft skill 6 Soft Skills Every Technology Worker Needs For Career Success 6 Soft Skills Every Technology Worker Needs For Career Success Some special skills are lacking in the IT field. For career success, you need the right attitude. Here are six important soft skills that'll get you noticed at your next IT job interview. Read More that is required of any technology worker these days.

Experiences in multiple fields is an asset if you are an aspiring data scientist — both within and outside the area that you’re working in. Being able to think creatively and address problems from multiple different angles is hugely useful when working in data science, as new problems often require innovation and ad-hoc solutions.

Learning the Skills for Data Science

Because data scientists need to be able to work with a variety of tools that come from different fields, as distinct as application development and probability theory, the path to joining the profession isn’t a clear one. Many data scientists start out as computer scientists or statisticians and gain the necessary skills while on the job. Others come from completely different backgrounds that give them the experience they need to solve problems in creative ways.

“Data scientists are involved with gathering data, massaging it into a tractable form, making it tell its story, and presenting that story to others.” 

– Mike Loukides, VP, O’Reilly Media.

However, data-science-specific training is becoming more available by the day. Although the places for degree-level training are small in number and extremely competitive, they’re worth looking into. Having a headstart on the skills that you’ll develop in these programs will increase the chances that you’ll get into a program, and land a job, even without a degree in computer or data science.

The resources listed below will help you start racking up the skills that you need to be a data scientist. Some are free online college courses 8 Awesome Websites to Take Free College Courses Online 8 Awesome Websites to Take Free College Courses Online Read More , and some are more professional-development-type resources. All of them are free, unless noted. At the end of the list, I’ve included some certification, immersive, and degree programs, in case you’re wondering where you can get some serious training in data science — there are more out there, but these should give you an idea of what’s available.

Introduction

Programming

Statistics and Data Analysis

Data Science Certifications

Data Science Immersive Program

Data Science Degree Programs

The list above should give you plenty to get started with. Once you’ve worked your way through the free resources, you can start looking at some field-specific things, like biostatistics, healthcare data analytics, or data analysis for security — there are a lot of resources that you can use without going back to school 4 Online Courses You Could Take Instead Of Going Back to School 4 Online Courses You Could Take Instead Of Going Back to School Going for a university education is an expensive proposition. There's no doubting that. For most people, this is totally worth it. The advantages that having a degree to your name totally outweigh the crushing indebtedness... Read More for a degree.

You can find courses on these topics in places like Coursera, Udacity, and even on YouTube. Going on to more advanced programming resources is also a good idea. There are tons of things out there for you to learn; you’ll just have to take some time to find the ones that are most applicable to you.

Here’s a short 1-minute inspiring video from Adobe on the life of a data scientist.

Do you want to be one? If you have any good resources to share for aspiring data scientists, please share them in the comments so that others interested in the field can take advantage of them!

Image Credits: Businessperson standing against the blackboard (edited), Closeup of businesswoman holding graphs in hand, Program code on a monitor via Shutterstock.

  1. Rob
    March 7, 2015 at 12:12 pm

    Very interesting! This is a career path that'll be growing and growing, so it's interesting to learn more about it...

    • Dann Albright
      March 8, 2015 at 4:30 pm

      Yeah, it's growing like crazy—definitely one of the most in-demand and well-paid positions right now. Makes me want to study it myself. :-)

  2. Zhong
    March 7, 2015 at 4:35 am

    Do you need a Bachelor degree to break into the field? I graduated with an AAS in BIS, am I applicable for this field?

    • Dann Albright
      March 8, 2015 at 4:29 pm

      A bachelor's degree will definitely help, but whether or not it's needed for entrance into the field probably depends on where you apply for a job. If you have all of the skills necessary, I would think that you'd be able to get a job with a smaller company. This job is in huge demand, so if you have the skills, you can probably get a job.

    • dragonmouth
      March 8, 2015 at 9:13 pm

      @Zhong:
      "Do you need a Bachelor degree to break into the field? I graduated with an AAS in BIS, am I applicable for this field? "
      Based on personal experience, you do not need a degree to work in the field. However, a degree definitely helps to get past the HR weenie who will be doing the initial interview for the position.

  3. Anonymous
    March 6, 2015 at 6:26 pm

    Informative article indeed. Makes me want to explore this field. Here's another free resource: Big Data with Apache Spark, offered on edX.

    • Dann Albright
      March 8, 2015 at 4:26 pm

      Thanks for the recommendation! It's a very cool field, and if it sounds interesting, I highly recommend looking into it more. It's a really hot field at the moment, and it looks like it probably will be for some time!

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