Why do I get the blue screen of death on Windows startup?

01 Oct 2012
Windows 7
Chrome 22
01 Oct 2012 | Windows 7 | Chrome 22

I turned on my computer and then I see “Starting Windows” followed by the blue screen of death.

I tried to use System Restore in Safe Mode, and other options on the F8 key at startup but got the same result: blue screen of death. I talked to my stepfather, and he said that I should change the RAM, or to use at least one, to check whether that is the problem, and again got the same thing.

So is it hardware-related, or it is the operating system which I must re-install?